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The normal lens of the eye gradually becomes denser as we get older which can result in a blurring of the vision. This is the common type of cataract (nuclear sclerosis) that occurs with age and may result in constantly blurred vision or a frequent need for a change in the spectacle prescription. Other types of cataract at the front or back of the lens (anterior or posterior sub-capsular cataracts) can also occur and can give rise to symptoms of glare and dazzle with lights, for example when driving at night. Some cataracts can be associated with underlying medical conditions.
The cornea is the clear, dome shaped surface of the eye that protects the eye from germs and helps the eye to focus. There are a number of disorders than can affect the cornea, examples of which include: allergies, conjunctivitis, infections, dry eye, Fuchs’ dystrophy, other corneal dystrophies, keratoconus, herpes simplex and Zoster. A corneal abnormality can cause blurring of vision and/or eye pain.
Glaucoma is the name given to a group of conditions that cause a characteristic pattern of damage to the eye that is in part related to an intraocular pressure (eye pressure) that is too high for the eye. This damage causes patchy loss of vision that varies in severity.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an eye disorder in which the central retina, the macula, becomes damaged leading to reduction in central vision. AMD is the most common cause of serious loss of vision in Europe and the USA. It affects the central (detail) vision, but normally leaves the outer (peripheral) vision unaffected. It is classified into two types: DRY which is much more common; or WET which occurs in 10-15% of cases, but is associated with more rapid and more marked visual loss.
The cornea and lens work together to focus light on the retina. The inability to focus light rays sharply is called refractive disorder and is caused by abnormal size, shape or consistency of the cornea and/or lens, in relation to the length of the eye. Refractive disorders can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses, laser or surgical procedures.
Lazy eye is a reduced vision in either or both eyes that persists after correction of any refractive error (i.e. when looking through the optimum glasses) and without any other eye diseases being present. It can be caused by squints, different spectacle prescription between the eyes or through using very strong glasses. Some cases are also caused by uncorrected astigmatism and diseases in the eye structures that prevent images getting to the retina.
Other procedures carried out include:
Ectropion is the medical term used to describe outward turning of the lower eyelid and eyelashes. The margin of the eyelid and the eyelashes evert (turn out). This can lead to excessive tearing, crusting of the eyelid, mucous discharge and irritation of the eye.
Entropion is the medical term used to describe the rolling inward of the lower eyelid and eyelashes towards the eye. The skin of the eyelid and the eyelashes rub against the cornea and conjunctiva. This rubbing can be very uncomfortable and damage the delicate tissues around the front of the eye. It can also impair vision.
Droopy upper eyelid occurs when the edge of the upper eyelid that contains the lashes falls too low.
When this happens, the edge of the eyelid covers part of the pupil blocking the upper part of your vision. In severe cases it is necessary to tilt one’s head back or lift the eyelid with a finger in order to see out from under the drooping lid.
Blepharitis is a very common condition which affects the eyelid margins of both eyes and can affect both children and adults. It is a low-grade chronic infection caused by common skin bacteria and a number of uncomfortable symptoms such as crusting, irritation, eyelid margin redness, watery eyes and burning or itching of the eyelids. It is sometimes associated with the skin condition called rosacea.
Eyes may water either because of too much tear secretion (due to irritation of the eye, Blepharitis or allergy) or because of a blockage in the tear drainage system. Watery eyes symptoms include blurred vision, irritation of the skin around the eye and infection of the tear drainage system. It can sometimes prevent people from wearing make-up and potentially causes embarrassment.
Other procedures carried out include: